Question: The Higher The Ozone Concentration, The Better?

In order to test for the effectiveness of ozone in reducing airborne bacteria, a conference room with area about 12㎡ was selected for testing. For safety, the disinfection process was carried out when humans, animals and plants were evacuated. 

Depends on the size of the room, an ozone generator with 50mg/hr output (Oshiner Ozone Air) was chosen. The capacity of the chosen ozone generator has the ability to maintain high concentration of ozone (0.5 – 5 ppm) inside. Circulation fan was placed in the room to ensure good distribution of ozone. After closing all the windows and doors, the ozone generator was turned on to begin ozonation process. Different levels of ozone (0.5, 2.5 and 5 ppm) were tested to determine the optimal value for killing as much microorganisms as possible. After turning off the ozone generator, ozone level began to drop as it was undergoing self-decomposition to oxygen.

In general, ozone concentration drops to below 0.02 ppm in a hour after ozonation, therefore we should wait for at least one hour (after turning off the generator) before entering the “ozonated” room. 

As shown in the figure, the ozone concentration raise very slowly in the initial period (the first few minutes). The delay in building up the ozone concentration is probably due to the consumption of ozone for oxidizing pollutants (including bacteria and viruses) in the initial period. After oxidizing the major pollutants, ozone concentration inside the room raise rapidly up to the desired level. To ensure entire room disinfection, high level of ozone was maintained for 30 minutes. When ozone generator was off, the ozone concentration dropped gradually as ozone converting back to oxygen. 

The total airborne bacteria in the conference room was measured before and after each ozonation. The disinfection efficiency of ozonation at different concentration was tabulated in Table 1.

Ozone Concentration0.5ppm2.5ppm5ppm
Before Ozonation 592 CFU/m3 612 CFU/m3 552 CFU/m3
After Ozonation 169 CFU/m3 42 CFU/m3 57 CFU/m3
Reduction % 71.5% 93.1% 89.6%

The results show that ozone is effective in reducing airborne bacteria. At higher ozone level, the sanitizing effect increased. Over 90% of airborne bacteria could be reduced at 2.5 ppm concentration. Further increase of ozone concentration to 5 ppm does not beneficial in bacteria reduction percentage.

Why the result is not 99.9%?

High removal percentage could not be achieved because the room was not 100% sealed. Doors should be opened briefly during each air sampling and air exchange from outside was unavoidable. For safety reason, excessive high concentration ozone should be avoided and the lowest ozone concentration that could kill most of the microorganisms should be selected as optimum. Depends on the contamination level, 0.5 – 2.5 ppm ozone level is adequate for air disinfection.

Conclusion

Experimental data shows that ozone is effective in reducing airborne bacteria of unoccupied room. Over 90% of airborne bacteria could be reduced after ozonation. As viruses are generally more susceptible to ozone than bacteria, it could assume that all viruses are killed if large percentage of airborne bacteria are removed. Ozone is a gas that has good penetration capacity and powerful oxidizing power, thus its disinfection efficiency is superior to UV radiation and HEPA filter. As ozone disinfection is conducted in unoccupied room only and all the residual ozone will be decomposed after the treatment, ozone toxicity to human is therefore not a concern. Given the advantages of strong oxidizing power, good penetration capacity and no harmful residues left after the treatment.

Ozone Generator Market Driven By Rapid Industrialization Across Developing Economies

The original article is from MarketWatch.

Ozone generators find extensive applications across a broad range of industries, with air treatment and water treatment being among most prominent ones. Manufacturers of ozone generators are constantly focusing on product innovations to introduce advanced and more efficient products. For instance, in 2017, Toshiba had launched the TGOGSTM range of compact ozone generators designed for optimum efficiency. These generators can be customized as per the particular needs of customers and can be used to treat drinking water as well as recycled municipal and industrial wastewater.

Ozone generators are also widely used in the automotive sector to improve the in-vehicle air quality. In May 2020, a car rental company on Spain’s Costa Del Sol announced that it is utilizing ozone generators to disinfect cars in wake of the coronavirus outbreak.

Driven by a positive application outlook in air treatment, water treatment, and aquaculture, global ozone generator market size is slated to surpass a valuation of US$450 million by 2026. Let’s take a look at some of the top trends impacting the product penetration in the near future.

In terms of the capacity, the demand for 5mg/hr – 100mg/hr ozone generators is expected to grow substantially over the next few years. This can be mainly linked with a growing focus towards improving the quality of indoor air across residential and commercial establishments. Ozone generator manufacturers are aiming to design innovative solutions with advanced instrumentation features to monitor pH, temperature, ammonia, dissolved oxygen, and water flow.

Ozone generator technologies can be bifurcated into electrolytic, ultraviolet, corona discharge, and cold plasma. Electrolytic ozone generators are increasingly gaining prominence in water treatment applications, which can be associated with growing urbanization and surging demand for clean and fresh drinking water.

Prominent use in ozone air treatment

In addition to air treatment and water treatment, ozone generation technologies are used in laboratory and medical equipment, food processing, pulp bleaching, aquaculture and fish farming, produce storage facilities, and organic synthesis. With growing focus towards improving the urban indoor air quality (IAQ), the product in air treatment applications is set to grow exponentially.

Ozone air treatment is used for air disinfection and odor control in kitchen exhausts, grease traps, VOC treatment, and garbage rooms. While air treatment applications will continue to augment ozone generator market forecast, the product is bound to witness growing adoption in aquaculture and fish farming since it has a quick reaction rate and produces fewer hazardous by-products.

MEA to emerge as a major revenue terrain

Considering the geographical landscape, Middle East and Africa (MEA) ozone generator industry is well poised to witness lucrative growth opportunities in the future. The regional growth can be attributed to recent trends in urbanization and commercialization. Meanwhile, robust industrial development in Latin American countries will positively influence the regional demand for ozone generators.

Governments in these regions are actively spending on the development of municipal as well as industrial wastewater treatment infrastructure. Several countries have tightened the regulations pertaining to discharge of wastewater.

Ozone generation technologies will continue to play a prominent role in air and water treatment, considering the surging demand for clean indoor air and fresh water in the upcoming years. Manufacturers are bound to witness substantial opportunities from additional applications such as ozone bleaching in the pulp bleaching industry.

Do you know how long does UV lamp take to disinfect?

Have you once questioned before?

In fact, there’re many factors, like bacteria types, ambient temperature, humidity etc. Firstly, you shall check the UV wavelength. Not all UV light can be used as sterilizer. UVA & UVB cannot disinfect anything. UVC lamp are widely used to do disinfection, the wavelength is from 200nm to 280nm, at peak of 265nm.

UV sterilization is most determined by two parameters:

1. The sterilizing dose = The radiation intensity of UV light (μW/cm²) x exposure time (seconds);

2. Type of bacteria and the environment.

Normally a new 30W UV lamp has a radiation intensity of 90-100μW/cm² at a distance of 1m.  If we take Escherichia coli for example, according to International Standard, the sterilizaing dose shall reach to 20,000 μW/cm² . So the exposure time is 20,000 μW/cm² ÷ 100 μW/cm² = 200 s (seconds), which is about 3 minutes and 20 seconds. The higher radiation intesity the shorter exposure time the lamp disinfect.

As you don’t know the types of germs and the disinfection standard, it’s better to do sterilization for a long period of time. Still for 30 w lamp, commonly the time shall be 30 minutes or longer.

Here’s the conception of disinfection time for reference:

Notes: Prolonged UV exposure causes certain damage to the stuff, like speeding up the plastic ageing, so the exposure time shall not be for too long. 

Cautions: Remember to do protection when using UVC light. It would cause harm to eyes and skin. Gloves and goggles are essential.

By the way, UV light is not effective against mites!

Common Misconceptions on HEPA Filtration

Are you easy to get into trap of thinking?

Misconception 1:  The bigger the particle, the easier it is to be eliminated by HEPA.

A: The principle of HEPA Filter is not just to simply like a sieve to purify the air. It has good purification efficiency for particles over 0.5μm or below 0.1μm.

The principle of HEPA Filter is not just to simply like a sieve to purify the air. It has good purification efficiency for particles over 0.5μm or below 0.1μm.

Misconception 2: The purification efficiency of HEPA for 0.3μm particles can reach 99.97%, so the filtration rate of HEPA for 0.1μm particles should be lower than 99.97%.

A: PM0.3 is more likely to break through the HEPA Filter because it is less susceptible to the Van der Waals force. Therefore, if the purification rate of PM0.3 is 99.97%, it may effect better for PM0.1, even up to 99.99%.

Misconception 3: Higher-grade filter works better.

A: The higher grade HEPA filter, the greater the resistance and the lower the actual ventilation rate will be. With the decrease of air flow, the number of purification times per time will also be reduced. The purification efficiency would be come down.

How to maintain your fridge hygienically clean?

As crazy as it sounds, your refrigerator becomes a good place for the growth of bacteria such as salmonella, e-coli, and botulinum if you don’t pay attentions on cleaning. That’s a reason your food cannot be stored for long. Don’t your fridge make you sick? Start now, make a change to freshen your refrigerator!

Is Disinfectant OK to Use in the Fridge?

Disinfectants – like bleach – should never be used inside refrigerators. As with other kitchen cleaning products, any disinfectant that comes into contact with food could make people ill because of the strong chemicals they contain. Stick to specially formulated products that are safe to use inside a fridge, or opt for natural cleaners instead.

Is Activated Charcoal Helpful?

Well, activated charcoal may works well as deodorizer to absorb smells. However, it works nothing to eliminate the bacteria and virus in the refrigerator. Also, you’ll just have to change it out for fresh charcoal once your fridge starts to smell a bit funky again.

Are Natural Products Useful?

Natural products can be very useful when cleaning a refrigerator, and they are safe ways to keep the appliance clean and hygienic. Regular baking soda can be great for removing stains and absorbing bad odours, while white vinegar is good for cleaning any stainless steel elements, including refrigerator doors if you have a stainless steel model. Just remember to test on a small area first to check there are no adverse effects.

What is the Simple One Stop Solution?

To reduce the hassle when fridge-cleaning time rolls around, there’s a quick and easy way to maintain the cleanliness of your refrigerator on a day-to-day basis.

Oshiner Fridge Freshener, your best fridge mate to freshen the refrigerator and food together. It is a small rechargeable ozone sterilizer that puts in the fridge, which can stand by over 30 days after fully charged. Ozone can sharply kill 99.9% bacteria and viruses to keep fridge hygienically clean and store food fresh at 2 – 3 weeks long.

How to choose a steriliser against coronavirus?

As concern about coronavirus grows, disinfactant, hand sanitizer and sterilising machines are in high demand. Let’s talk about how to choose the right steriliser during epidemic.

UV and Ozone technology are commonly applied for sterilisers. Both have very powerful sterilization. Have you ever wonder how ozone and UV differ? If you want to buy a sterilizer at home, which one would be the best choice?

UV LAMPS

UV technology what we mentioned actually is UV-C light, the wavelength is between 200 and 280 nanometers. It can kill most of dangerous bacteria and viruses from MRSA to E. coli. Normally, when you use UV lamp for disinfection, you should put the objects closely to the lamp (within 1,5m) . The effectiveness of UVC depends on the length of time a microorganism is exposed to UV (within 30 – 60 mintues at least). Otherwise, it’s useless.

Dust and films coating the bulb will lower UV output. Therefore, bulbs require periodic cleaning and replacement to ensure effectiveness. The lifetime of germicidal UV bulbs varies depending on design. 

Caution: Skin exposure to germicidal wavelengths of UV light can produce rapid sunburn and skin cancer. UV can damage the retina of the eye as well. Remember to leave from the room when using UVC for sanitization. It’s dangerous!

OZONE STERILISER

Ozone, the most powerful disinfectant, is 50 times more effective at disinfection compared to the most popular disinfectant – chlorine, and the effects of its action are visible 3,000 times faster. It has been widely applied for water purification, air sterilization and food storage over hunderd years.

Ozone can kill 99.9% bacteria and viruses. It’s been proven can kill SARS and MERS Coronavirus. One obvious benefit of ozone is that the reaction /sterilization is instantaneous as the gas contacts with air/object surface. Ozone has a 20-30 minute half-life in the air meaning that its concentration will break down quickly. 

The only concerns of Ozone is the safety in use. Depends on the contamination level, 0.5 – 2.5 ppm ozone level is adequate for air disinfection. An accuracy control of the ozone concentration is one of the key indicators of ozone sterilisers. Caution: DON’T USE INDUSTIAL OZONE GENERATOR TO DO DISINFECTION AT HOME. Ozone abuse may cause throat irritation, cough, chest pain, shortness of breath.

Oshiner Ozone Air Purifier, with timer included, it can be easily operate and avoid overusing of ozone. The ozone concentration is strictly controlled under U.S. & EU Standard that you don’t need to worry about overusing the ozone and affecting health.

Kind Reminder: If you have asthma or other respiratory illness, or sensitive to the ozone smell, we kindly suggest you to be away from the room when the unit works.